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                        PgMP Certification: Monitoring and Control Process Group

                        Program Monitoring and Control Process Group

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                        Monitoring and Controlling the Program process group covers the processes performed to observe program execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the program. The key benefit is that program performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the program management plan. Monitoring and Controlling involves continuous monitoring for performance and progress, and take actions based on it. Forecasts are performed to ensure any problems are anticipated. The list of processes, their major output and knowledge area are given below.

                        1. Processes in Program Monitoring and Control process group

                          Program Monitoring and Control Process Major Output Knowledge Area
                          Integrated Change Control Approvals and rejections of change requests Integration Management
                          Resource Control Expenditure and utilization reports Integration Management
                          Monitoring and Controlling Program work Change Requests and forecasts Integration Management
                          Issue Management and Control Proposed Resolutions Integration Management
                          Scope Control Approvals and rejections of the scope related changes Scope Management
                          Schedule Control Change requests and updates to the program schedule Time Management
                          Cost Control Change requests and updates to the program budget Cost Management
                          Perform Quality Control Inspection Reports Quality Management
                          Communication Control Change requests and updates to the communication management plan Communication Management
                          Performance Reporting Performance reports and communication messages Communication Management
                          Risk Monitoring and Control Risk related change requests and updates to risk register Risk Management
                          Program Contract Administration Change requests and approved payment requests Procurement Management

                        2. Integrated Change Control process involves review of change requests and recommendations for corrective and preventive actions for approval and disapproval. The Program Management plan will need to be updated after a change request or a recommendation is approved. The inputs, tools and techniques and output for Integrated Change control are given in the table:

                          ITTO in Integrated Change Control process

                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Change Requests (CR’s) Management Information System(MIS) Approvals and Rejections of CR’s
                          Recommendations for Corrective and Preventive actions(CAPA) Configuration Management System Change Register
                          Program Management Plan Change Control system Modified Project Priorities
                          Program Scope Statement Performance Measurements Updated Program Management Plan
                          Performance Reports Expert Judgment Updated Program Scope Statement
                          Cost Management Plan Updated Benefits Realization Plan

                        3. Management Information System (MIS) is a collection of tools and techniques to gather, integrate, and disseminate the output of program management process.
                        4. Configuration management system (CM) is a system that focuses on establishing and maintaining consistency of its constituent components and operational information throughout its life. It tracks and verifies any changes made to the configuration continuously and maintains records of approvals and validations for the configuration changes done.
                        5. Change register (CR) is a document that contains the record of change requests and actions taken on them.
                        6. Controlling Resources is one of the most important processes of program management as any program, however small it may be, involves the utilization of resources, both material and human. It is important that the resources be utilized as planned in the Resource Management plan and the Program Management plan and the controlling resources process takes care of this. The inputs, tools and techniques and outputs of the Controlling Resources process are given in the table:

                          ITTO in Controlling Resources process

                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Program Management Plan Observations and Conversations Requests for change, Lease termination, and equipment reclamations
                          Staffing Management Plan Conflict Management Reports: Expenditure and utilization
                          Resource Management Plan Policies and Procedures Equipment transfer agreements
                          Program Budget Performance Appraisals Cross charges
                          Performance Reports Resource Leveling techniques
                          Lease Agreements Issue Log and Program Management Information System(PMIS)
                          Requirements for equipments, facilities, material and personnel Brainstorming

                        7. Tools and Techniques of Controlling Resources process include
                          • Observation and Conversations are ways to stay in touch with the work performed by the team members.
                          • Conflict Management involves resolving differences among the stakeholders. It is used to nourish positive working relationships among the team members with the aim of increasing productivity and optimizing use of resources.
                          • Performance appraisals help setting specific goals for the resources.
                          • Resource leveling techniques are used to reallocate underutilized resources.

                        8. Monitoring and Controlling Program Work is an important process required to monitor and control project and non-project work being performed at the program level.

                          ITTO in Monitoring and Controlling Program Work process

                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Program Management Plan Expert Judgment Change Requests
                          Communication Management Plan Management Information System (MIS) Forecasts
                          Performance Reports Earned Value (EV) Technique Communication Messages
                          Program Benefits Statement

                        9. Issue Management and Control process is used to identify, track, review, resolve, and close issues in order to keep the stakeholders’ expectations aligned with the program activities and deliverables. Issue register is the document used.

                          ITTO in Controlling Resources process

                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Program Management Plan Management Information System (MIS) Proposed Resolutions
                          Work results Status Review Meetings Escalated Issues
                          Performance Reports General Management Skills Change Requests
                          Issues Register Communication Methods Updates to Issue Register

                        10. Triple constraints of scope, time, and cost need to be controlled for the success of the program.
                        11. Scope Control Process is used to manage the changes to the scope if any and to avoid things like scope creep. Inputs, tools and techniques and outputs of the process are:

                          ITTO in Scope Control process

                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Performance Reports Performance Management and analysis Approvals and Rejections of change requests
                          Program Work Breakdown Structure (PWBS) Scope Change Control System Communication of change request status
                          Program Scope Statement and Scope Management Plan Configuration Management System Updates to Program Scope and budget
                          Program Schedule
                          Program Budget
                          Change Requests

                        12. Schedule Control Process is used to monitor and control the progress of the program against the plan. Inputs, tools and techniques and outputs of the Schedule Control process are:

                          ITTO in Controlling Resources process

                        13. Earned Value performance technique involves measuring the progress of scope, time and cost with respect to planned status. Earned value scorecard refers to the values of these metrics in a program.
                        14. Cost Control Process is used to monitor and control the changes to the program budget. Inputs, tools and techniques and outputs of the Cost Control process are given in the table below:

                          ITTO in Cost Control process

                        15. Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Performance Reports Schedule Change Control System Change requests
                          Program and Project Schedules Progress reporting Information for Stakeholders
                          Schedule Management Plan Performance Measurement and analysis Updates to Program Schedule
                          Schedule Information requests Program Management Software
                          Earned Value Performance and Earned Value scorecard
                          Forecasts
                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Cost Performance Reports Cost change control system Change Requests
                          Program budget Earned Value Management Estimation versus completion
                          Actual Cost for non-project program activities Forecasting Variance reports
                          Cost Management Plan Management software and computerized tools Updates to program budget
                          Earned value performance
                          Forecasts

                        16. Cost Baseline, Schedule Baseline, and Scope Baseline are used as the basis to measure, monitor, and control the performance of the program under the triple constraints.
                        17. Controlling cost can involve proactive or reactive approaches. Proactive approaches involves taking actions based upon the plan. Reactive approaches involves taking action to deal with unanticipated problems.
                        18. Perform Quality Control process is applied to control the quality throughout the program. Inputs, tools and techniques and outputs of the Perform Quality Control process are:

                          ITTO in Perform Quality Control process

                          Input Tools and Techniques Output
                          Statistical Sampling Completed quality checklists
                          Work Results Inspection Results from measurements
                          Quality Management Plan Flowchart, Runchart, Scatter diagrams, Histogram Reports: Inspection and test
                          Quality Checklists Pareto charts, Cause and effect diagram, Control Charts Non-conforming work projects or results
                          Change requests

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