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                        Project Scope Management

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                        This chapter covers key concepts related to Project Scope Management.

                        1. The knowledge area of Project Scope Management consists of the following processes -

                          Scope Management Processes

                          Process Project Group Key Deliverables
                          Plan Scope Management Planning
                          Collect Requirements Planning Requirements document
                          Define Scope planning project scope statement
                          Create WBS planning WBS, WBS dictionary
                          Validate Scope Monitoring and Controlling Acceptance deliverables
                          Control Scope Monitoring and Controlling Change Requests
                           
                        2. The knowledge area of Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work, and only all the work required to complete the project successfully. It is primarily concerned with controlling what is and what is not in the scope.
                        3. Project Portfolio Management is the process of project selection. It involves making a decision about which project an organization should execute.
                        4. There are two types of project selection methods. These are
                          • Benefits Measurement
                          • Constrained Optimization
                        5. Benefits Measurement project selection methods involve comparing the values of one project against another. There are the following type of Benefit Measurement project selection techniques -
                          • Murder Boards - This involves a committee asking tough questions from each project
                          • Scoring Models - Different projects are given scores based on certain defined criteria. Project with higher score is selected.
                          • Benefits Cost Ratio - This technique involves computing benefits to cost ratio (BCR) for a project. Project with higher BCR is selected.
                          • Payback period - This technique involves considering how long it takes back to "pay back" the cost of the project. Inflation or interest earned in not considered in this technique. A project with lower pay back period is better.
                          • Discounted Cash Flow - This technique takes into account the interest earned on the money. The Future Value (FV) of projects is compared.
                            FV=PV(1+i)n
                            PV is the present value of the project. A project with higher present value is better.
                          • Internal Rate of Return (IRR) - A project that has higher IRR is better, as it is giving higher return on money.
                        6. Constrained Optimization Project selection methods are used for large projects. These are techniques based on mathematical models. The Constrained Optimization techniques are -
                          • Linear Programming
                          • Non-Linear Programming
                          • Integer Algorithm
                          • Dynamic Programming
                          • Multi-objective Programming
                        7. Expected monetary value of a project (or expected value) is equal to probability*impact. So if probability of a project's success is 20% and revenue earned if successful is $100000, then the net value of the project will be $20,000. A project with higher net value should be selected when performing project selection.
                        8. Management by Objective (MBO) is a management philosophy with three objectives -
                          • Establish unambiguous and realistic objectives
                          • Periodically Evaluate if objectives are being met
                          • Take corrective actions.
                          MBO works only if management supports it.
                        9. Collect Requirements process involves documenting stakeholders needs to meet project objectives. The Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs of Collect Requirements process are given below.

                          Collect Requirements Process

                          Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
                          Project charter Interviews Requirements documentation
                          Stakeholder register Focus groups Requirements management plan
                          Facilitated workshops Requirements traceability matrix
                          Group creativity techniques
                          Questionaires and surveys
                          Observations
                          Prototypes
                          Group decision-making techniques
                           
                        10. The Define Scope process involves defining detailed description of the project and major deliverables. The Input, Tools and Techniques and Output of the Define Scope process are:

                          Define Scope Process

                          Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
                          Project charter Expert judgment Project scope statement
                          Requirements documentation Product analysis Project document updates
                          Organizational process assets Alternative identification
                          Facilitated workshops
                           
                        11. Create WBS is the process of dividing the project deliverables into smaller components. The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs of Create WBS process are:

                          Create WBS Process

                          Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
                          Project Scope Statement Decomposition WBS
                          Requirements documentation WBS dictionary
                          Organizational process assets Scope baseline
                          Project document updates
                           
                        12. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is an important part of the exam. It is a graphical representation of the hierarchy of the project. The WBS template can be reused across projects. WBS forces the project team to think through all the levels of the project. If a task is not in the WBS, then it is not part of the project.
                        13. 8/80 rule for WBS - No task should be less than 8 hours or more than 80 hours.
                        14. WBS dictionary explains all the WBS components. Also WBS is input to most of the planning processes. Specifically WBS is input to the following processes -
                          • Cost Estimating
                          • Cost Budgeting
                          • Scope control
                          • Activity Definition
                          • Plan Purchases and Acquisitions
                        15. The Validate Scope is the process in which the project customer formally accepts the project deliverables. Scope Validation happens at the end of each phase. During the Validate Scope process customer gives feedback on work performed. While Validate Scope process focuses on customer acceptance, Perform Quality Control process focuses on correctness of work.
                        16. The table below gives inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs of the Validate Scope process.

                          Validate Scope Process

                          Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
                          Project management plan Inspection Accepted Deliverables
                          Requirements documentation Change requests
                          Requirements traceability matrix Project document updates
                          Validated deliverables
                           
                        17. Control Scope process involves monitoring the status of project and managing scope changes. The Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs of Control Scope process are:

                          Control Scope Process

                          Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs
                          Project management plan Variance analysis Work performance measurements
                          Requirements documentation Change requests
                          Requirements traceability matrix Project management plan updates
                          Organizational process assets Organizational process assets updates
                          Work performance information Project document updates
                           
                        Questions on Project Scope Management are available in Scope Questions.

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