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                        Project Schedule Management

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                        The knowledge area of Project Time Management consists of the following processes -

                        Time Management Processes

                        Process Project Phase Key Deliverables
                        Plan Schedule Management Planning
                        Define Activities Planning Activity List, Milestone list
                        Sequence Activities Planning Project Schedule network diagrams
                        Estimate Activity Resources Planning Activity resource requirements,
                        Resource breakdown structure
                        Estimate Activity Durations Planning Activity duration estimates
                        Develop Schedule Planning Project Schedule
                        Control Schedule Monitoring and Controlling Work Performance measurements,
                        Change Requests


                      1. The Define Activities process has the following Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs -

                        Define Activities Process

                        Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                        Scope baseline Decomposition Activity list
                        Enterprise environmental factors Rolling wave planning Activity attributes
                        Organizational process assets Templates Milestone list
                        Expert judgment


                      2. The Sequence Activities process has the following Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs -

                        Sequence Activities Process

                        Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                        Project scope statement Precedence diagram method (PDM) or AON Project schedule network diagrams
                        Activity List Applying leads and lags Project document updates
                        Activity attributes Schedule Network Templates
                        Milestone list Dependency determination
                        Organizational process assets


                      3. The Estimate Activity Resources process has the following Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs -

                        Estimate Activity Resources Process

                        Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                        Activity List Expert judgment Activity resource requirements
                        Activity attributes Alternative analysis Resource breakdown structure
                        Resource calendars Published estimating data Project document updates
                        Enterprise environmental factors Bottom-up estimating
                        Organizational process assets Project Management software


                      4. The Estimate Activity Durations process has the following Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs -

                        Estimate Activity Durations Process

                        Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                        Activity list Expert judgment Activity duration estimates
                        Activity attributes Analogous estimating Project document updates
                        Activity resource requirements Parametric estimating
                        Resource calendars Three-point estimates
                        Project scope statement Reserve analysis
                        Enterprise environmental factors
                        Organizational process assets


                      5. The Develop Schedule process has the following Inputs, Tools and Techniques, and Outputs-

                        Develop Schedule Process

                        Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                        Organizational process assets Schedule network analysis Project Schedule
                        Project scope statement Critical path method Schedule baseline
                        Activity List Schedule Compression Schedule data
                        Activity attributes What-if scenario analysis Project document updates
                        Project Schedule Network diagram Resource levelling
                        Activity Resource requirements Critical chain method
                        Resource Calendars Scheduling tool
                        Activity duration estimates Applying calendars
                        Project Management Plan -
                        Risk Register
                        Adjusting Leads and Lags
                        Enterprise environmental factors


                      6. The Control Schedule process has the following Inputs, Tools and Techniques and Outputs -

                        Control Schedule Process

                        Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                        Project management plan Performance reviews Work performance measurements
                        Project schedule Variance analysis Organizational process assets updates
                        Work performance information Project management software Change requests
                        Organizational process assets Resource leveling Project management plan updates
                        What-if scenario analysis Project document updates
                        Adjusting leads and lags
                        Schedule compression
                        Scheduling tool


                      7. Bar charts (or Gantt charts) are used to display tasks and their dates in a graphical fashion. They are used to display information of the type task 1 is scheduled from date A to date B. Typically the date range is displayed in the X-axis and the tasks on the Y-axis. Bar charts do not show task dependencies. They are generally used to track progress and show to the team.
                      8. Milestone charts are similar to bar charts but display only major events. They display major milestones (for example bridge design completed). They are used to report status to Management.
                      9. Network diagrams are used to display activities and their dependencies. Network diagrams can be used to perform critical path analysis. Network diagrams can also be used to perform crashing and fast tracking of the project.
                        There are two type of network diagrams -
                        • Activities on Node (or Precedence)
                        • Activities on Arrow (or AOA)
                        Precedence is most commonly used. AON and AOA cannot have loops or conditional relationships.
                      10. An activity in a network diagram is displayed as shown below.
                        Activity name
                        Activity Number Estimate

                        As an example -

                        Documentation
                        2 5 days
                        In the above example Documentation is activity number 2 and is estimated to last 5 days.

                      11. Precedence (or Activity on Node) diagrams can be used to display four type of relationship between activities. These are
                        • Finish-To-Start
                        • Start-To-Start
                        • Start-To-Finish
                        • Finish-To-Finish

                        Finish-to-start relationship means the dependent activity cannot start until the first activity is finished. This is the most common way to represent relationships between activities.

                      12. Activity on Array (AOA) network diagrams have the following characteristics.
                        • AOA only uses Finish-To-Start relationship between tasks.
                        • PERT and CPM can only be used with AOA.
                        • Dummy events are shown with dotted lines. They do not take any time. They show dependencies between tasks.
                      13. Longest path through the network diagram is called the critical path. The activities on the critical paths are called critical activities.
                      14. Lags are inserted waiting times in between tasks. For example Task B cannot start until three days after task A completes.
                      15. Slack or Float is the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project. Tasks on the critical path have zero float.
                      16. Critical Path Method (CPM) has the following characteristics.
                        • It uses one time estimate per activity
                        • It can be drawn only using AOA diagrams
                        • It can have dummy events
                      17. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) has the following characteristics.
                        • It uses three estimates per activity - optimistic, pessimistic and most likely
                        • It can be drawn only using AOA diagrams
                        • It can have dummy events
                      18. PERT utilizes more information than CPM as it considers the "Pessimistic" and "Optimistic" values in addition to the "Most Likely" value in its calculations. The following are formulae used by PERT -
                         Mean = (P + 4M + O)/6
                         Standard Deviation = (P-O)/6
                         Variance = ((P-O)/6)2

                        Here P is the pessimistic estimate, O is the optimistic estimate and M is the most likely estimate.
                      19. GERT is another type of network diagram. It can support looping.
                      20. If a project has more than one critical paths then the risk to the project increases.
                      21. Resource levelling refers to keeping the resources same across the duration of the project.
                      22. Questions on Project Schedule Management are available in Schedule Questions.

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