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                        Project Quality Management

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                        This chapter covers key concepts related to Project Quality Management.

                        1. The knowledge area of Project Quality Management consists of the following processes -

                          Quality Management Processes

                          Process Project Phase Key Deliverables
                          Plan Quality Managment Planning Quality Management Plan,
                          Quality Metrics
                          Perform Quality Assurance Execution Change Requests
                          Perform Quality Control Monitoring and Controlling Quality control measurements
                           
                        2. The process of Plan Quality Management includes defining quality requirements of the project and documenting how the project will ensure compliance. The ITTO of Plan Quality Management process are given below.

                          Plan Quality Process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Scope baseline Cost-benefit analysis Quality management plan
                          Stakeholder register Cost of quality Quality metrics
                          Cost performance baseline Control charts Quality checklists
                          Schedule baseline Benchmarking Process improvement plan
                          Risk register Design of experiments Project document updates
                          Enterprise environmental factors Stastical sampling  
                          Organizational process assets Flowcharting  
                            Proprietary quality management methodology  
                            Additional quality planning tools  
                           
                        3. Grade refers to category or rank given to entities having same functional use but different technical characteristics. As an example, for different grades of hotels, the customers expectations are different. Poor grade may be acceptable, but poor quality is not.
                        4. The aim of quality is to ensure "Conformance to requirements" and "fitness for use".
                        5. Quality Policy defines the company goals and how to adhere to them. This acts as an input to Quality Planning for a project. Quality Policy is part of Organizational Process assets.
                        6. Deming suggested a process of Plan-Do-Check-Act to improve quality. According to Deming, each process should go through these steps to improve the quality.
                        7. Kaizen Theory - Apply continuous small improvements to reduce costs and ensure consistency.
                        8. Marginal Analysis - You compare the cost of incremental improvements against the increase in revenue made from quality improvements. Optimal quality is reached when cost of improvements equals the costs to achieve quality.
                        9. The value of sigma of Normal Distribution are given below. These are important for the exam.

                          Normal Distribution Sigma values

                          Sigma Percentage covered
                          One sigma 68.26%
                          Two sigma 95.46%
                          Three sigma 99.73%
                          Six sigma 99.99%
                           

                          Based on the above table, we can see that in six sigma one out of 10,000 items can have defects. In three sigma, twenty seven out of 10,000 items can have defects.

                        10. Giving extras i.e. doing more than the project scope is called gold-plating. PMI does not recommend gold-plating.
                        11. Quality must be planned in and not inspected in. Prevention is more important than inspection.
                        12. Quality Assurance is done during execution of the project. It includes -
                          • Process of evaluating overall performance on a regular basis
                          • Re-evaluating quality standards
                          • Quality audits - structured review of quality activities that identify lessons learned. These lessons learned are used for process improvement.
                          Perform Quality Assurance involves reviewing the quality requirements and auditing the results from quality control measurements. Perform Quality Assurance uses data created during Perform Quality Control.

                          ITTO of Perform Quality Assurance

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project management plan Plan Quality and Perform Quality Control tools and techniques Organizational process updates
                          Quality metrics Quality audits Change requests
                          Work performance information Process analysis Project management plan updates
                          Quality control measurements   Project document updates
                           
                        13. Perform Quality Control focuses on correctness of work. It includes inspections. The inputs, tools and techniques and outputs (ITTO) used for Perform Quality Control process are -

                          ITTO of Perform Quality Control

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project management plan Cause and effect diagram Quality control measurements
                          Quality metrics Control charts Validated changes
                          Quality checklists Flowcharting Validated deliverables
                          Work performance measurements Histogram Organizational process assets updates
                          Approved change requests Pareto chart Change requests
                          Deliverables Run chart Project management plan updates
                          Organizational process assets Scatter diagram Project document updates
                            Statistical Sampling  
                            Inspection  
                            Approved change requests review  
                           
                        14. In Just-In-Time (JIT) Quality, the amount of inventory is zero. The inputs are made available, just when they are required. This reduces the storage cost.
                        15. Rule of seven : In control charts, if there are seven points on one side of mean, then an assignable cause must be found.
                        16. The process of Analogous Estimation involves looking at the history of past projects, and use them to make estimates.

                        Questions on Project Quality Management are available in Quality Questions.

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