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                        Human Resource Management

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                        This chapter covers key concepts related to Project Human Resource Management.

                        1. The knowledge area of Project Human Resource Management consists of the following processes -

                          Human Resource Management Processes

                          Process Project Phase Key Deliverables
                          Plan Human Resource Management Planning Human Resource Plan
                          Acquire Project Team Execution Project Staff assignments
                          Develop Project Team Execution Team performance assessments
                          Manage Project Team Execution Change requests
                           
                        2. Plan Human Resource Management process involves identifying and documenting project roles and responsibilities. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Plan Human Resource Management process -

                          Plan Human Resource Management Process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Enterprise environmental factors Organization charts and
                          position descriptions
                          Human resource plan
                          Organizational process assets Organizational Theory  
                          Activity resource requirements Networking  
                           
                        3. Acquire project team process involves identifying and obtaining the team necessary to execute the project. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Acquire project team process -

                          Acquire project team process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project management plan Pre-assignment Project staff assignments
                          Enterprise environmental factors Negotiation Resource calendars
                          Organizational process assets Acquisition Project management plan updates
                            Virtual teams  
                        4.  
                        5. Develop project team process involves improving the competencies of the team members and improving teamwork between the team. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Develop project team process -

                          Develop project team process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project staff assignment Interpersonal skills Team performance assessments
                          Project management plan Training Enterprise environmental factors updates
                          Resource calendars Team-building activities  
                            Ground rules  
                            Co-location  
                            Recognition and rewards  
                           
                        6. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) defines who does what. The Staffing Management Plan defines when will people get added and removed from the project.
                        7. A Project Manager may yield authority over the project team in one of the following ways -
                          • Referent - project team knows the PM
                          • Formal Power - Power due to Project Managers position
                          • Technical Power - Project Manager has strong technical skills in the projects domain.
                          • Coercive Power - The project team is afraid of the power the Project Manager holds.
                        8. Conflicts in the team are caused due to the following reasons in decreasing order of occurrences.
                          • Schedules
                          • Project Priorities
                          • Resources
                          • Technical Opinions
                          So the most common cause of conflicts in projects are issues related to schedules.
                        9. Conflicts are best resolved by those in the team.
                        10. There are standard conflict resolution techniques available to resolve conflicts. These are (from best to worst) -
                          • Problem Solving or Confrontation (look at the facts, analyze them and find a solution). This is an example of win-win situation.
                          • Compromising (Find the middle route). This is an example of loose-loose situation.
                          • Withdrawal or Avoidance
                          • Smoothing (Emphasize the agreements)
                          • Forcing (Do it my way). This is an example of win-loose situation.
                        11. The process of problem solving has these steps -
                          • Define the cause of the problem
                          • Analyze the problem
                          • Identify solution
                          • Implement a decision
                          • Review the decision, and confirm that the problem is solved.
                        12. Manage project team process is the process of tracking team member performance and managing issues within the team. The table below gives the inputs, tools and techniques, and Outputs for the Manage project team process -

                          Manage project team process

                          Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs
                          Project staff assignments Observation and conversation Enterprise environmental factors updates
                          Project management plan Project performance appraisals Organizational process assets updates
                          Team performance assets Conflict management Change requests
                          Performance reports Issue log Project management plan updates
                          Organizational process assets Interpersonal skills  
                           
                        13. War room is a technique for team building. As part of this the project team meets in one room. It helps to create a project identity.
                        14. Halo Effect is the assumption that because the person is good at a technology, he will be good as a project manager.
                        15. There are many organizational theories. Some of the main ones are - Expectancy Theory, McGregory Theory, Herzberg Theory, Maslow's Hierarchy of needs.
                        16. Expectancy Theory - People accept to be rewarded for their efforts. This is a motivation factor. People put in more efforts because they accept to be rewarded for their efforts.
                        17. McGregory Theory of X and Y - There are two type of employees. Employees of type X need to be always watched. They cannot be trusted and need to be micro managed. Employees of type Y, on the other hand, are self-motivated. They can work independently.
                        18. Herzberg Theory - Hygiene factors (salary, cleanliness etc.) if not present can destroy motivation. However good hygiene alone does not improve motivation. What motivates people is the work itself. The motivation factors for employees include responsibility, self-actualization, growth, recognition etc.
                        19. Maslow's Hierarchy of needs - there are various levels of needs for an employee. When a lower level is met, employee attempts to reach the next higher level. The maximum satisfaction is achieved when the employee reaches the highest level of satisfaction - self-fulfillment. These level of needs from the highest to lowest are -
                          • Self-fulfillment
                          • Esteem
                          • Social
                          • Safety
                          • Physiology

                        Questions on Project HR Management knowledge area are available in Human Resources Questions.

                        UP NEXT: Communication

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